Healthcare Training Institute - Quality Education since 1979
CE for Psychologist, Social Worker, Counselor, & MFT!!
Girls and women receive a consistent message about the high social and emotional costs of their anger. However, the impact of this message may vary depending on the gender role expectations of the work environment and/ or the developmental context. Our primary goal was to examine the experience and expression of anger in two groups of females with distinctly different work roles (students and office employees). Because students "work" in an environment that endorses masculine attitudes and behaviors, we expected that they would be more willing to express their anger than would office employees. The focus was on within-gender rather than between-gender similarities and differences because we agree with Rollins' perspective: "Rather than asking who are more aggressive--women or men--we should be analyzing the cultural, social and psychological circumstances surrounding incidents of [anger and] aggression by women".
Anger Evaluation Survey. The Anger Evaluation Survey is an open-ended inventory exploring affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses to anger-provoking situations. The format is paper-and-pencil self-report, in which respondents answer questions by selecting from possible options, with space provided for descriptive responses as well. Selection of items was guided by previous research and the results of pilot interviews with older adolescent females.
In the first section, participants responded to a hypothetical situation designed to elicit an emotional response to a blocked goal (the situation was piloted and found to elicit anger/frustration). They then described the intensity, type, and duration of the anticipated emotion. Participants also rated contextual factors that might influence their anger experience, using a three-point scale--more likely, no effect (neutral), or less likely to experience anger. These moderators included issues of equitable treatment, trust, previous experience with a similar situation, knowledge about others' reward in a similar situation, and institutional rationale for the lack of reward. Next, participants rated situational factors that might influence their anger expression. These moderators included the gender of the target person, anticipated effect on the target person, place, investment in the outcome, and personal factors, such a stress level.
We compiled two instrument packets. One packet, entitled Expression Survey, began with the STAXI, and the second, entitled Anger Survey, began with the Anger Evaluation Survey. Half of the participants in each group received the Expression Survey and half received the Anger Survey. Of the 300 employees who received the questionnaire packets, 118 (39%) completed and returned those packets. Employees who received the Anger Survey were less likely to complete and return their packets than were the employees who received the Expression Survey (41% vs. 59%), chi2(1,N = 281) = 4.49,p < .05. Those who returned completed packets represented all levels of staff and all worked in an office environment.
The Goal of this Home Study Course is to create a learning experience that enhances your clinical skills. We encourage you to discuss the Personal Reflection Journaling Activities, found at the end of each Section, with your colleagues. Thus, you are provided with an opportunity for a Group Discussion experience. Case Study examples might include: family background, socio-economic status, education, occupation, social/emotional issues, legal/financial issues, death/dying/health, home management, parenting, etc. as you deem appropriate. A Case Study is to be approximately 225 words in length. However, since the content of these Personal Reflection Journaling Exercises is intended for your future reference, they may contain confidential information and are to be applied as a work in progress. You will not be required to provide us with these Journaling Activities.
Reflection Exercise #1