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Psychologist Post-Test

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1. What are four stages of early community recovery from a school shooting tragedy?
2. What are three conflicts that impact early community recovery following a school shooting?
3. What are the first three elements in the five factor model for the origin of a rampage school shooting?
4. According to Newman, what is the role of gun availability in rampage school shootings?
5. What are four steps than can be used to help prevent school shootings?
6. What are four steps that can help encourage students to come forward about threats?
7. What are the four stages of a hostage situation?


A.  Three conflicts are, getting stuck vs moving on, who owns the problem, and who are the ‘real’ victims.
B.  Four steps are ensure confidentiality, direct contact between parents and teachers, educational films, and decisive action.
C.  These four steps are, adjusting the radar, school resource officers, leavening social capital and tweaking adolescent culture, and a zero tolerance policy.
D. The first three of five elements are the perception of marginalization, psychosocial problems, and cultural scripts supporting violence.
E.  Guns are not a direct cause of school shooting, but they are causally related.  Without gun availability, a rampage school shooting could clearly not occur.
F.  The initial hostage taking stage, the crisis stage, the accommodation stage, and the surrender stage
G.  Four stages are closing ranks, cracks in the foundation, healing at different speeds, and the impact on shooter’s families.


8. What is the legal consensus on the definition of a "true threat"?
9. What are the constitutional law issues involved in using profiles to prevent school violence?
10. What are five effective strategies that have been used to reduce youth violence?
11. What are the four guiding principles for structured professional judgment in violence risk assessment?
12. What are the ten historical items included in the SAVRY for adolescent violence risk assessment?
13. According to Bender, what are five common factors among rampage school shooters?
14. What are three explanations for why rampage school shooters are usually male?
15. What are three guidelines to helping students distinguish a threat that should be reported to adults?
16. According to Fast, what four negative experiences are sudden death survivors more prone to?
17. How does the sudden death of a child create a particularly intense form of grief?


A.  Five common factors are: emotional factors, alienation, prior warnings of violence, accessibility of guns, and a low or declining respect for life.
B The parent mourns the loss of the child as well as the loss of a part of his or her self, since love for the child includes a narcissistic component.
C.  Three explanations are, 1. school is often a harsh environment for boys, 2. there is a pervasive lack of male role models in schools, particularly at lower grade levels; 3. in the early years, schools tend to emphasize skills in which girls generally excel (e.g., fine-motor control, sedate behavior, and high levels of language/communication skills).
D.  According to these courts, a "true threat" is a threat that a reasonable person in the same circumstances would find to be a serious and unambiguous expression of intent to do harm based on the language and context of the threat.
E.  According to Bailey, assigning students to alternative education programs based on a student's likeness to a profile could be seen as a deprivation of the right to equal educational opportunities and thus could pose serious constitutional questions.
F.  Ten historical items are: history of violence, history of nonviolent offending, early initiation of violence, past supervision/intervention failures, history of self-harm or suicide attempts, exposure to violence in the home, childhood history of maltreatment, parental/ caregiver criminality, early caregiver disruption, and poor school achievement.
G.  Sudden death survivors are more prone to experience a sense of unreality, of helplessness, heightened feelings of guilt about having failed to avert the disaster, and a strong need to blame someone for the crisis.
H.  1. There is no profile or single "type" of perpetrator of targeted violence; 2. there is a dynamic interaction among perpetrator, situation, target, and the setting; 3. there is a distinction between making a threat (expressing an intent to harm a target to the target or others) and posing a threat (engaging in behaviors that lead to a plan to harm); and 4. targeted violence is not random or spontaneous.
I.  Five effective strategies included skills training, behavior monitoring and reinforcement, cooperative learning, bullying prevention programs, and parent education programs.
J.  1. If another student emphasizes "killing" as opposed to a vague threat about getting back at someone; 2. if the person points out that they have access to a gun; 3. or if they seem to have a specific plan for how to kill someone.

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