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Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Barnett, J. E., & Kolmes, K. (2016). The practice of telemental health: Ethical, legal, and clinical issues for practitioners. Practice Innovations, 1(1), 53–66.

Benefield, H., Ashkanazi, G., & Rozensky, R. H. (2006). Communication and records: Hippa issues when working in health care settings. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(3), 273–277.

Brown, M. E., Vogel, R. M., & Akben, M. (2021). Ethical conflict: Conceptualization, measurement, and an examination of consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Chenneville, T., & Gabbidon, K. (2020). HIV, confidentiality, and duty to protect: Considerations for psychotherapists in the age of treatment as prevention. Psychotherapy, 57(1), 7–14.

Clocksin, H. E., & Spychala, K. M. (2021). Ethical considerations in services being provided to and by fellow clinicians. Practice Innovations, 6(2), 120–130.

Committee on Legal Issues, American Psychological Association. (2016). Strategies for private practitioners coping with subpoenas or compelled testimony for client/patient records or test data or test materials. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47(1), 1–11.

Contrastano, C. M. (2020). Trainee’s perspective of reciprocal vulnerability and boundaries in supervision. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 30(1), 44–51.

Dias, P., & Brito, R. (2020). How families with young children are solving the dilemma between privacy and protection by building trust—A portrait from Portugal. Journal of Children and Media, 14(1), 56–73.

Dugbartey, A. T., & Miller, M. (2009). Review of Boundaries in psychotherapy: Ethical and clinical explorations [Review of the book Boundaries in psychotherapy: Ethical and clinical explorations, by O. Zur]. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 50(1), 42–43.

Fivecoat, H. C., Cos, T. A., & Possemato, K. (2017). Special ethical considerations for behavioral health consultants in the primary care setting. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(5), 335–342.

Forrest, L., Elman, N. S., Bodner, K. E., & Kaslow, N. J. (2021). Trainee confidentiality: Confusions, complexities, consequences, and possibilities. Training and Education in Professional Psychology.

Frei, J. M., Sazhin, V., Fick, M., & Yap, K. (2021). Emotion-oriented coping style predicts self-harm in response to acute psychiatric hospitalization. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 42(3), 232–238.

Gantt, E. E. (2017). Review of the Dialogical mind: Common sense and ethics [Review of the book The dialogical mind: Common sense and ethics, by I. Marková]. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 37(3), 197–198.

Gochyyev, P., & Skeem, J. L. (2019). Efficiently assessing firm, fair, and caring relationships: Short form of the Dual Role Relationship Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 31(3), 352–364.

Gustafson, K. E., & McNamara, J. R. (1987). Confidentiality with minor clients: Issues and guidelines for therapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 18(5), 503–508.

Hailes, H. P., Ceccolini, C. J., Gutowski, E., & Liang, B. (2021). Ethical guidelines for social justice in psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 52(1), 1–11.

Hodgson, J., Mendenhall, T., & Lamson, A. (2013). Patient and provider relationships: Consent, confidentiality, and managing mistakes in integrated primary care settings. Families, Systems, & Health, 31(1), 28–40.

Hudgins, C., Rose, S., Fifield, P. Y., & Arnault, S. (2013). Navigating the legal and ethical foundations of informed consent and confidentiality in integrated primary care. Families, Systems, & Health, 31(1), 9–19.

James, K., & Stewart, D. (2018). Blurred boundaries—A qualitative study of how acts of selfharm and attempted suicide are defined by mental health practitioners. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 39(4), 247–254.

Kanzler, K. E., Goodie, J. L., Hunter, C. L., Glotfelter, M. A., & Bodart, J. J. (2013). From colleague to patient: Ethical challenges in integrated primary care. Families, Systems, & Health, 31(1), 41–48.

Law, E. F., & Schueller, S. M. (2019). Coordinated special issues on eHealth/mHealth in pediatric psychology: Introduction to the Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology special issue on development and feasibility of eHealth/mHealth technologies for pediatric psychologists in clinical settings. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 7(1), 1–8.

Lo Cricchio, M. G., Palladino, B. E., Eleftheriou, A., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E. (2021). Parental mediation strategies and their role on youths’ online privacy disclosure and protection: A systematic review. European Psychologist.

Lustgarten, S. D., & Colbow, A. J. (2017). Ethical concerns for telemental health therapy amidst governmental surveillance. American Psychologist, 72(2), 159–170.

Lustgarten, S. D., Sinnard, M. T., & Elchert, D. M. (2020). Data after death: Record keeping considerations for unexpected departures of mental health providers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 51(4), 362–370.

Lustgarten, S. D., Garrison, Y. L., Sinnard, M. T., & Flynn, A. W. P. (2020). Digital privacy in mental healthcatherapire: Current issues and recommendations for technology use. Current Opinion in Psychology, 36, 25–31.

Mandalaki, E., & Fotaki, M. (2020). The bodies of the commons: Towards a relational embodied ethics of the commons. Journal of Business Ethics. Advance online publication.

Moss, L. S. (2017). Collaboration, confidentiality, and care. Psychological Services, 14(4), 443–450.

Muehleman, T., Pickens, B. K., & Robinson, F. (1985). Informing clients about the limits to confidentiality, risks, and their rights: Is selfdisclosure inhibited? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16(3), 385–397.

Muir, H. J., Coyne, A. E., Morrison, N. R., Boswell, J. F., & Constantino, M. J. (2019). Ethical implications of routine outcomes monitoring for patients, psychotherapists, and mental health care systems. Psychotherapy, 56(4), 459–469.

Ponce, A. N., Aosved, A. C., & Hill, K. (2021). Facilitation of consultation and communication between psychology doctoral programs and internships. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 15(3), 189–194.

Pope, K. S. (2015). Recordkeeping controversies: Ethical, legal, and clinical challenges. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 56(3), 348–356.

Richards, M. M. (2009). Electronic medical records: Confidentiality issues in the time of HIPAA. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(6), 550–556.

Rigg, T. (2018). The ethical considerations of storing client information online. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 49(5-6), 332–335.

Savadori, L., & Speranza, E. (2021). Self-other decision making and protective behavior under risk. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 14(2), 115–130.

Smith, P. L., & Ratcliff, R. (2021). Modeling evidence accumulation decision processes using integral equations: Urgency-gating and collapsing boundaries. Psychological Review.

Steinberg, A. (L.), & Alpert, J. L. (2017). Sexual boundary violations: An agenda demanding more consideration. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 34(2), 221–225.

Stiles, P. G., & Petrila, J. (2011). Research and confidentiality: Legal issues and risk management strategies. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17(3),

Summers, F. (2017). Sexual relationships between patient and therapist: Boundary violation or collapse of the therapeutic space? Psychoanalytic Psychology, 34(2), 175–181.

Taylor, L., & Adelman, H. S. (1989). Reframing the confidentiality dilemma to work in children's best interests. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20(2), 79–83.

Viljoen, J. L., & Vincent, G. M. (2020). Risk assessments for violence and reoffending: Implementation and impact on risk management. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice.

Ware, J. N., & Dillman Taylor, D. (2014). Concerns about confidentiality: The application of ethical decisionmaking within groupplay therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 23(3), 173–186.

Witts, B. N., Brodhead, M. T., Adlington, L. C., & Barron, D. K. (2020). Behavior analysts accept gifts during practice: So now what? Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 20(3), 196–202.

Wu, K. S., & Sonne, J. L. (2021). Therapist boundary crossings in the digital age: Psychologists’ practice frequencies and perceptions of ethicality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.

Xanthopoulou, P., Ryan, M., Lomas, M., & McCabe, R. (2021). Psychosocial assessment in the emergency department: The experiences of people presenting with self-harm and suicidality. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention.

Additional References:
Abramson, M. Reflections on knowing oneself ethically: Toward a working framework for social work practice. Families in Society, 1996a, 77(4), 195202.

American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (2015, January 1). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association (APA). (2017, January 1). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from

Barker, R. L. (1998). Milestones in the Development of Social Work and Social Welfare. Washington, DC: NASW Press. Rankin, Mary, JD employed by the Healthcare Training Institute to research and write the article Evolution of Social Work Ethics. Edited by Tracy Appleton, LCSW. The reference Barker, Robert L. Milestones in the Development of Social Work and Social Welfare. Washington, DC NASW Press, 1998

Bemecker, Samantha L. Helping Clients Help Themselves: Managing Ethical Concerns When Offering Guided SelfHelp Interventions in Psychotherapy Practice. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice. Apr2014, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p111119.

Bristol, Shirley T; Hicks, Rodney W. Protecting boundaries of consent in clinical research: Implications for improvement. Nursing Ethics. Feb2014, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p1627.

Committee on Legal Issues, American Psychological Association; Strategies for Private Practitioners Coping with Subpoenas or Compelled Testimony for Client Records or Test Data; Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice; Vol. 37 (2); Washington D.C.; 2006

Edlefsen, Mary & Baird, Margaret;  Making it Work:  Preventative Mental Health Care for Disadvantaged Preschoolers; Social Work; Vol. 39 (5); 1994; US:  NASW Press

Gering, Mark; Receiving gifts from clients: ethical and therapeutic issues; Journal of Mental Health Counseling; Jul 2004; Vol. 26; Issue 3.

Glass, Leonard; The gray areas of boundary crossings and violations; American Journal of Psychotherapy; 2003; Vol. 57; Issue 4.

Gupta, Umesh Chandra. Informed consent in clinical research: Revisiting few concepts and areas. Perspectives in Clinical Research. JanMar2013, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p2632.

Hecker, Lorna L.; Edwards, Anne B. The Impact of HIPAA and HITECH: New Standards for Confidentiality, Security, and Documentation for Marriage and Family Therapists. American Journal of Family Therapy. Mar/Apr2014, Vol. 42 Issue 2, p95113.

Henderson, Kathryn L. Mandated Reporting of Child Abuse: Considerations and Guidelines for Mental Health Counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. Oct2013, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p296309.

Kangas, Julie L.; Calvert, James D. Ethical Issues in Mental Health Background Checks for Firearm Ownership. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice. Feb2014, Vol. 45 Issue 1, p7683.

Legal Action Center expects confidentiality to be preserved. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly. 9/30/2013, Vol. 25 Issue 37, p34.

Loewenberg, F. M., & Dolgoff, R. & Harrington, D. Ethical decisions for social work practice. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock., 2000.

Marsh, Howard; Reynard, John; Patient confidentiality: ethical, legal and regulatory responsibilities; BJU International, July 2009, Vol 104 Issue 2

Mighten, Janice; CONFIDENTIALITY AND CHILDREN WITH HIV; Pediatric Nursing, June 2009, Vol 21 Issue

Moe, Cathrine; Kvig, Erling I; Brinchmann, Beate; Brinchmann, Berit S. Working behind the scenes’ An ethical view of mental health nursing and firstepisode psychosis. Nursing Ethics. Aug2013, Vol. 20 Issue 5, p517527.

National Association of Social Workers. (2017). NASW Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates. (2016, October 7). NBCC Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

Nursing Management; The challenge of relationship boundaries in mental health; Oct 2004; Vol. 11; Issue 6.

Olivier, Claude, Enhancing Confidentiality within Small Groups: The Experiences of AIDS Service Organizations; Social Work with Groups, December 2009, Vol 32 Issue

Reamer, F. G. The social work ethics audit: A riskmanagement strategy. Social Work, 2000, 45(4), 355366.

Reamer, Frederic; Boundary issues in social work: managing dual relationships; Social work; Jan 2003; Vol. 48; Issue 1.

Reamer, Frederic G., Social Work Ethics Casebook: Cases and Commentary. Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2009

Reamer, Frederic G., Social Work Malpractice and Liability: Strategies for Prevention, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003)

Reamer, Frederic G., Social Work Values and Ethics, 3rd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)

Reamer, Frederic G., Ethical Standards in Social Work: A Review of the NASW Code of Ethics, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2006)

Reamer, Frederic G., The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Riskmanagement Tool (Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2001)

Reamer, Frederic G., Tangled Relationships: Managing Boundaries in the Human Services (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001)

Reamer, Frederic G., Ethics Education in Social Work (Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education, 2001)

Remer, Frederic; Update on confidentiality issues in practice with children: Ethics risk management; Children & Schools; Apr 2005; Vol. 27; Issue 2. 

Robison, Wade & Reeser, Linda Cherrey; Ethical Decision Making in Social Work; Allyn & Bacon; Needham Heights, MA; 2000

Rothstein, Mark A., Tarasoff Duties after Newtown, Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Spring2014, Vol. 42 Issue 1, p104109. .

Schwoebel, Camilla. Confidentiality: A Conundrum in Veterans Behavioral Health Care. Developments in Mental Health Law. Jan2013, Vol. 32 Issue 1, p14.

Werth, James, Burke, Caroline, & Rebekah Bardash; Confidentiality in endoflife and afterdeath situations; Ethics & Behavior; Jul 2002; Vol. 12; Issue 3.

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