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APA Code of Ethics Excerpts
This Ethics Code is intended to provide specific standards to cover most situations encountered by psychologists. It has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work and the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline.
The development of a dynamic set of ethical standards for psychologists' work-related conduct requires a personal commitment and lifelong effort to act ethically; to encourage ethical behavior by students, supervisees, employees, and colleagues; and to consult with others concerning ethical problems.
4.02 Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality
(b) Unless it is not feasible or is contraindicated, the discussion of confidentiality occurs at the outset of the relationship and thereafter as new circumstances may warrant.
(c) Psychologists who offer services, products, or information via electronic transmission inform clients/patients of the risks to privacy and limits of confidentiality.
4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy
(b) Psychologists discuss confidential information obtained in their work only for appropriate scientific or professional purposes and only with persons clearly concerned with such matters.
(b) Psychologists disclose confidential information without the consent of the individual only as mandated by law, or where permitted by law for a valid purpose such as to (1) provide needed professional services; (2) obtain appropriate professional consultations; (3) protect the client/patient, psychologist, or others from harm; or (4) obtain payment for services from a client/patient, in which instance disclosure is limited to the minimum that is necessary to achieve the purpose. (See also Standard 6.04e, Fees and Financial Arrangements.)
4.07 Use of Confidential Information for Didactic or Other Purposes
Section 5: Advertising and Other Public Statements
(b) Psychologists do not make false, deceptive, or fraudulent statements concerning (1) their training, experience, or competence; (2) their academic degrees; (3) their credentials; (4) their institutional or association affiliations; (5) their services; (6) the scientific or clinical basis for, or results or degree of success of, their services; (7) their fees; or (8) their publications or research findings.
(c) Psychologists claim degrees as credentials for their health services only if those degrees (1) were earned from a regionally accredited educational institution or (2) were the basis for psychology licensure by the state in which they practice.
5.02 Statements by Others
(b) Psychologists do not compensate employees of press, radio, television, or other communication media in return for publicity in a news item. (See also Standard 1.01, Misuse of Psychologists' Work.)
(c) A paid advertisement relating to psychologists' activities must be identified or clearly recognizable as such.
5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs
5.04 Media Presentations
5.06 In-Person Solicitation
These guidelines are informed by relevant American Psychological Association (APA) standards and guidelines, including the following: Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (“APA Ethics Code”) (APA, 2002a, 2010), and the Record Keeping Guidelines (APA, 2007). In addition, the assumptions and principles that guide the APA's “Guidelines on Multicultural Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists” (APA, 2003) are infused throughout the rationale and application describing each of the guidelines. Therefore, these guidelines are informed by professional theories, evidence-based practices and definitions in an effort to offer the best guidance in the practice of telepsychology.
The use of the term guidelines within this document refers to statements that suggest or recommend specific professional behaviors, endeavors or conduct for psychologists. Guidelines differ from standards in that standards are mandatory and may be accompanied by an enforcement mechanism. Thus, guidelines are aspirational in intent. They are intended to facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession and to help ensure a high level of professional practice by psychologists. “Guidelines are created to educate and to inform the practice of psychologists. They are also intended to stimulate debate and research. Guidelines are not to be promulgated as a means of establishing the identity of a particular group or specialty area of psychology; likewise, they are not to be created with the purpose of excluding any psychologist from practicing in a particular area” (APA, 2002b, p. 1048). “Guidelines are not intended to be mandatory or exhaustive and may not be applicable to every professional or clinical situation. They are not definitive and they are not intended to take precedence over the judgment of psychologists” (APA, 2002b, p. 1050). These guidelines are meant to assist psychologists as they apply current standards of professional practice when utilizing telecommunication technologies as a means of delivering their professional services. They are not intended to change any scope of practice or define the practice of any group of psychologists.
The practice of telepsychology involves consideration of legal requirements, ethical standards, telecommunication technologies, intra- and interagency policies, and other external constraints, as well as the demands of the particular professional context. In some situations, one set of considerations may suggest a different course of action than another, and it is the responsibility of the psychologist to balance them appropriately. These guidelines aim to assist psychologists in making such decisions. In addition, it will be important for psychologists to be cognizant and compliant with laws and regulations that govern independent practice within jurisdictions and across jurisdictional and international borders. This is particularly true when providing telepsychology services. Where a psychologist is providing services from one jurisdiction to a client/patient located in another jurisdiction, the law and regulations may differ between the two jurisdictions. Also, it is the responsibility of the psychologists who practice telepsychology to maintain and enhance their level of understanding of the concepts related to the delivery of services via telecommunication technologies. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to contravene any limitations set on psychologists' activities based on ethical standards, federal or jurisdictional statutes or regulations, or for those psychologists who work in agencies and public settings. As in all other circumstances, psychologists must be aware of the standards of practice for the jurisdiction or setting in which they function and are expected to comply with those standards. Recommendations related to the guidelines are consistent with broad ethical principles (APA Ethics Code, 2002a, 2010) and it continues to be the responsibility of the psychologist to apply all current legal and ethical standards of practice when providing telepsychology services.
It should be noted that APA policy generally requires substantial review of the relevant empirical literature as a basis for establishing the need for guidelines and for providing justification for the guidelines' statements themselves (APA, 2005). The literature supporting the work of the Task Force on Telepsychology and guidelines statements themselves reflect seminal, relevant and recent publications. The supporting references in the literature review emphasize studies from approximately the past 15 years plus classic studies that provide empirical support and relevant examples for the guidelines. The literature review, however, is not intended to be exhaustive or serve as a comprehensive systematic review of the literature that is customary when developing professional practice guidelines for psychologists.
Definition of Telepsychology
The Task Force on Telepsychology has agreed upon the following operational definitions for terms used in this document. In addition, these and other terms used throughout the document have a basis in definitions developed by the following U.S. agencies: Committee on National Security Systems, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Lastly, the terminology and definitions that describe technologies and their uses are constantly evolving, and therefore, psychologists are encouraged to consult glossaries and publications prepared by agencies, such as, the Committee on National Security Systems and the National Institute of Standards and Technology which represent definitive sources responsible for developing terminology and definitions related to technology and its uses.
The term “ client/patient ” refers to the recipient of psychological services, whether psychological services are delivered in the context of healthcare, corporate, supervision, and/or consulting services. The term “ in-person, ” which is used in combination with the provision of services, refers to interactions in which the psychologist and the client/patient are in the same physical space and does not include interactions that may occur through the use of technologies. The term “ remote ” which is also used in combination with the provision of services utilizing telecommunication technologies, refers to the provision of a service that is received at a different site from where the psychologist is physically located. The term “remote” includes no consideration related to distance, and may refer to a site in a location that is in the office next door to the psychologist or thousands of miles from the psychologist. The terms “ jurisdictions ” or “ jurisdictional ” are used when referring to the governing bodies at states, territories, and provincial governments.
Finally, there are terms within the document related to confidentiality and security. “ Confidentiality ” means the principle that data or information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized persons or processes. The terms “ security ” or “ security measures ” are terms that encompass all of the administrative, physical, and technical safeguards in an information system. The term “ information system ” is an interconnected set of information resources within a system and includes hardware, software, information, data, applications, communications, and people.