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Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Adam-Troian, J., Tecmen, A., & Kaya, A. (2021). Youth extremism as a response to global threats? A threat-regulation perspective on violent extremism among the youth. European Psychologist, 26(1), 15–28.

Brady, W. J., Wills, J. A., Burkart, D., Jost, J. T., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2019). An ideological asymmetry in the diffusion of moralized content on social media among political leaders. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(10), 1802–1813.

Caprara, G. V., Tisak, M. S., Alessandri, G., Fontaine, R. G., Fida, R., & Paciello, M. (2014). The contribution of moral disengagement in mediating individual tendencies toward aggression and violence. Developmental Psychology, 50(1), 71–85.

Conkel-Ziebell, J. L., Gushue, G. V., & Turner, S. L. (2019). Anticipation of racism and sexism: Factors related to setting career goals for urban youth of color. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66(5), 588–599.

Conoley, J. C., Powers, K., & Gutkin, T. B. (2020). How is school psychology doing: Why hasn’t school psychology realized its promise? School Psychology, 35(6), 367–374.

Coyne, S. M., Callister, M. A., Gentile, D. A., & Howard, E. (2016). Media violence and judgments of offensiveness: A quantitative and qualitative analysis. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 5(4), 372–389.

Cuevas, C. A., Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., Robles, J., Lockwood, S., Geisler, I., Van Westendorp, J., Temple, J., & Zhang, S. (2021). Hate crime and bias victimization of Latinx adults: Rates from a multisite community sample. Psychology of Violence, 11(6), 529–538.

Culhane, S. E., Hosch, H. M., & Weaver, W. G. (2004). Crime Victims Serving as Jurors: Is There Bias Present? Law and Human Behavior, 28(6), 649–659.

Cunningham, M. D. (2018). Differentiating delusional disorder from the radicalization of extreme beliefs: A 17-factor model. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 5(3), 137–154.

Ellis, B. H., & Abdi, S. (2017). Building community resilience to violent extremism through genuine partnerships. American Psychologist, 72(3), 289–300.

Estrada, S., Richards, C., Gee, D. G., & Baskin-Sommers, A. (2020). Exposure to violence and nonassociative learning capability confer risk for violent behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 129(7), 748–759.

Faragó, L., Kende, A., & Krekó, P. (2020). We only believe in news that we doctored ourselves: The connection between partisanship and political fake news. Social Psychology, 51(2), 77–90.

Fine, A., Simmons, C., Cavanagh, C., Rowan, Z., & Cauffman, E. (2020). Implications of youths’ perceptions of police bias and the code of the street for violent offending. Psychology of Violence, 10(5), 473–482.

Goldstein, N. E. S., Kreimer, R., Guo, S., Le, T., Cole, L. M., NeMoyer, A., Burke, S., Kikuchi, G., Thomas, K., & Zhang, F. (2021). Preventing school-based arrest and recidivism through prearrest diversion: Outcomes of the Philadelphia police school diversion program. Law and Human Behavior, 45(2), 165–178.

Hawk, C. E., & Ridge, R. D. (2021). Is it only the violence? The effects of violent video game content, difficulty, and competition on aggressive behavior. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications, 33(3), 134–144.

Horgan, J., Shortland, N., & Abbasciano, S. (2018). Towards a typology of terrorism involvement: A behavioral differentiation of violent extremist offenders. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 5(2), 84–102.

Jasko, K., Webber, D., Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M., Taufiqurrohman, M., Hettiarachchi, M., & Gunaratna, R. (2020). Social context moderates the effects of quest for significance on violent extremism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 118(6), 1165–1187.

Kruglanski, A. W., Jasko, K., Chernikova, M., Dugas, M., & Webber, D. (2017). To the fringe and back: Violent extremism and the psychology of deviance. American Psychologist, 72(3), 217–230.

Lemay, E. P., Jr., & Teneva, N. (2020). Accuracy and bias in perceptions of racial attitudes: Implications for interracial relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1380–1402.

Lindstrom Johnson, S., Waasdorp, T. E., Cash, A. H., Debnam, K. J., Milam, A. J., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2017). Assessing the association between observed school disorganization and school violence: Implications for school climate interventions. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 181–191.

Lloyd, M., & Dean, C. (2015). The development of structured guidelines for assessing risk in extremist offenders. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(1), 40–52.

Logan, J. E., Vagi, K. J., & Gorman-Smith, D. (2016). Characteristics of youth with combined histories of violent behavior, suicidal ideation or behavior, and gun-carrying. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 37(6), 402–414. 

Ly, V., von Borries, A. K. L., Brazil, I. A., Bulten, B. H., Cools, R., & Roelofs, K. (2016). Reduced transfer of affective value to instrumental behavior in violent offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(5), 657–663. 

Mrkva, K., Cole, J. C., & Van Boven, L. (2020). Attention increases environmental risk perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. 

Mulvey, K. L., Hoffman, A. J., Gönültaş, S., Hope, E. C., & Cooper, S. M. (2018). Understanding experiences with bullying and bias-based bullying: What matters and for whom? Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 702–711.

Nadal, K. L., Davidoff, K. C., Davis, L. S., Wong, Y., Marshall, D., & McKenzie, V. (2015). A qualitative approach to intersectional microaggressions: Understanding influences of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and religion. Qualitative Psychology, 2(2), 147–163.

Ozer, S., & Bertelsen, P. (2019). Countering radicalization: An empirical examination from a life psychological perspective. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 25(3), 211–225.

Raitanen, J., & Oksanen, A. (2019). Deep interest in school shootings and online radicalization. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 6(3-4), 159–172.

Reiter, J., Doosje, B., & Feddes, A. R. (2021). Radicalization and deradicalization: A qualitative analysis of parallels in relevant risk factors and trigger factors. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 27(2), 268–283.

Sarma, K. M. (2017). Risk assessment and the prevention of radicalization from nonviolence into terrorism. American Psychologist, 72(3), 278–288.

Shortland, N., & McGarry, P. (2021). The personality and propaganda puzzle: Exploring the effect of personality on exposure to extremist content online. Psychology of Violence.

Siller, L., Edwards, K. M., & Banyard, V. (2021). School and community correlates of interpersonal violence among high school students. Psychology of Violence, 11(3), 244–252.

Sugarman, D. B., Nation, M., Yuan, N. P., Kuperminc, G. P., Hassoun Ayoub, L., & Hamby, S. (2018). Hate and violence: Addressing discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 649–656.

Swencionis, J. K., & Goff, P. A. (2017). The psychological science of racial bias and policing. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 23(4), 398–409.

Verkuyten, M. (2018). Religious fundamentalism and radicalization among Muslim minority youth in Europe. European Psychologist, 23(1), 21–31.

Vossekuil, B., Fein, R. A., & Berglund, J. M. (2015). Threat assessment: Assessing the risk of targeted violence. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(3-4), 243–254.

Wang, Y., Benner, A. D., & Kim, S. Y. (2015). The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing family and peer socialization toward heritage and mainstream cultures. Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 1452–1462.

Warren, J. I., Leviton, A. C. R., Reed, J., Saathoff, G. B., Patterson, T. D., Richards, L. A., & Fancher, A. D. (2018). Operationalizing theory: A moral-situational action model for extremist violence. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 5(4), 205–226. 

Webber, D., Babush, M., Schori-Eyal, N., Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, A., Hettiarachchi, M., Bélanger, J. J., Moyano, M., Trujillo, H. M., Gunaratna, R., Kruglanski, A. W., & Gelfand, M. J. (2018). The road to extremism: Field and experimental evidence that significance loss-induced need for closure fosters radicalization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(2), 270–285.

White-Ajmani, M. L., & Bursik, K. (2014). Situational context moderates the relationship between moral disengagement and aggression. Psychology of Violence, 4(1), 90–100.

Additional References:
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Hate Crime. New Orleans Police Department Operations Manual, May 7, 2017, p. 1-7.

- National Institute of Justice (July 28-30, 2015). Radicalization and Violent Extremism: Lessons Learned From Canada, the U.K. and the U.S. National Institute of Justice, p. 1,11-15, 16-21, 22-28, and 29-30

- Office of Partner Engagement (January 2016). Preventing Violent Extremism in Schools. Office of Partner Engagement, p. 1,7-10, 10-12, 13-15, 15-18, 18-21, & 21-27.

- Radicalization into Violent Extremism. A Guide for Military Leaders, August 2011, p. 1-2.

- Vera Institute of Justice (August 2018). Bias Crime Assessment: A Tool and Guidelines for Law Enforcement and Concerned Communities. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, p. 1-18.

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