Healthcare Training Institute - Quality Education since 1979
CE for Psychologist, Social Worker, Counselor, & MFT!!
Seeing the depressed fail regularly, in the face of challenges that others meet, might dispose anyone to the alternative possibility, that depression confers no benefit. Some illnesses, and some normal traits, represent happenstance in evolution.
In a famous essay, the late Stephen Jay Gould compared such evolutionary accidents to "spandrels." Spandrels are triangular spaces below the domes of Gothic churches. (The correct term of art for such a space is pendentive, but spandrel remains the word used in the evolution debate.) Long assumed to be purposive-they hold images of the apostles-spandrels turn out to be not planned decorations but incidental forms that result from the limitations of medieval architectural methods. If you mount a dome on pairs of rounded arches, you're stuck with spandrels. The apostles are late additions-a use that was conceived centuries after the construction of the Cathedral of San Marco in Venice and others.
Spandrels are by-products;
they represent limitations of engineering, an unintended consequence. It is the
main project that is shaped and optimized by natural selection, not the spandrel,
which comes along for the ride. Sometimes spandrels are later put to use, as in
the addition of mosaic portraits of saints. Gould coined the word exaptation to
cover this development, a late modification that manages to make the best of a
spandrel. Depression may be a spandrel-natural without having contributed evolutionary
advantage. And then there is no reason that depression would not be decorated
exaptively-for instance, by attracting a mythology regarding its value, or through
acquiring a role in song and story.