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Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Beitel, M., Gone, J. P., Myhra, L. L., Cutter, C. J., & Barry, D. T. (2020). A first look at the working alliance in psychotherapy with American Indians.Psychotherapy. Advance online publication. 

Chao, R. C.-L., Wei, M., Good, G. E., & Flores, L. Y. (2011). Race/ethnicity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence: The moderating effects of multicultural counseling training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(1), 72–82.

Cheung, R. Y. M., Bhowmik, M. K., & Hue, M.-T. (2019). Why does acculturative stress elevate depressive symptoms? A longitudinal study with emotion regulation as a mediator. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Advance online publication.

Chu, J., & Leino, A. (2017). Advancement in the maturing science of cultural adaptations of evidence-based interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(1), 45–57.

De Nadai, A. S., Little, T. B., McCabe, S. E., & Schepis, T. S. (2019). Diverse diagnostic profiles associated with prescription opioid use disorder in a nationwide sample: One crisis, multiple needs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(10), 849–858.

de Schweinitz, P. A., Nation, C., DeCou, C. R., Stewart, T. J., & Allen, J. (2017). Cultural perspectives on suicide from a rural Athabascan Alaska Native community: Wellness teams as a strengths-based community response. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 41(1), 4–16. 

Emmen, R. A. G., Malda, M., Mesman, J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Prevoo, M. J. L., & Yeniad, N. (2013). Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: Testing a minority family stress model. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(6), 896–904. 

Glass, M. H., & Bieber, S. L. (1997). The Effects of Acculturative Stress on Incarcerated Alaska Native and Non-Native Men. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 3(3), 175–191.

Gone, J. P., & Alcántara, C. (2007). Identifying effective mental health interventions for American Indians and Alaska Natives: A review of the literature. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(4), 356–363. 

Gonzales, K. L., Noonan, C., Goins, R. T., Henderson, W. G., Beals, J., Manson, S. M., Acton, K. J., & Roubideaux, Y. (2016). Assessing the Everyday Discrimination Scale among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Psychological Assessment, 28(1), 51–58. 

Gonzalez, V. M., Burroughs, A., & Skewes, M. C. (2020). Belief in the American Indian/Alaska Native biological vulnerability myth and drinking to cope: Does stereotype threat play a role? Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advance online publication. 

Goss, C. W., Richardson, W. J. “B.”, Dailey, N., Bair, B., Nagamoto, H., Manson, S. M., & Shore, J. H. (2017). Rural American Indian and Alaska Native veterans’ telemental health: A model of culturally centered care. Psychological Services, 14(3), 270–278. 

Greenfield, B. L., Hallgren, K. A., Venner, K. L., Hagler, K. J., Simmons, J. D., Sheche, J. N., Homer, E., & Lupee, D. (2015). Cultural adaptation, psychometric properties, and outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale. Psychological Services, 12(2), 123–133. 

Jugert, P., & Titzmann, P. F. (2017). Trajectories of victimization in ethnic diaspora immigrant and native adolescents: Separating acculturation from development. Developmental Psychology, 53(3), 552–566.

Kirschner, S. R. (2019). Indigenous psychology compared to what? Some complexities of culture, language, and social life. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 39(2), 98–106. 

Kivlighan, D. M. III, Owen, J., & Antle, B. F. (2020). Do racial/ethnic disparities differ between relationship education groups? Testing the cultural effectiveness of racially diverse relationship education groups. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 9(1), 1–12. 

Lardon, C., Wolsko, C., Trickett, E., Henry, D., & Hopkins, S. (2016). Assessing health in an Alaska native cultural context: The Yup’ik Wellness Survey. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22(1), 126–136.

Macdonald, A., Pukay-Martin, N. D., Wagner, A. C., Fredman, S. J., & Monson, C. M. (2016). Cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD improves various PTSD symptoms and trauma-related cognitions: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(1), 157–162. 

Matsick, J. L., & Conley, T. D. (2016). Cultural stereotypes and personal beliefs: Perceptions of heterosexual men, women, and people. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(1), 113–128.

Mohatt, N. V., Fok, C. C. T., Burket, R., Henry, D., & Allen, J. (2011). Assessment of awareness of connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor for Alaska native youth. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(4), 444–455.

Moore, L. A., Aarons, G. A., Davis, J. H., & Novins, D. K. (2015). How do providers serving American Indians and Alaska Natives with substance abuse problems define evidence-based treatment? Psychological Services, 12(2), 92–100.

Nakamura, N., Tummala-Narra, P., & Zárate, M. A. (2013). Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology’s special issue on immigration. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19(3), 233–235. 

Norton, I. M., & Manson, S. M. (1996). Research in American Indian and Alaska Native communities: Navigating the cultural universe of values and process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 856–860. 

O'Keefe, V. M., Cwik, M. F., Haroz, E. E., & Barlow, A. (2019). Increasing culturally responsive care and mental health equity with indigenous community mental health workers. Psychological Services. Advance online publication.

Patallo, B. J. (2019). The multicultural guidelines in practice: Cultural humility in clinical training and supervision. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 13(3), 227–232. 

Rasmus, S. M., Trickett, E., Charles, B., John, S., & Allen, J. (2019). The qasgiq model as an indigenous intervention: Using the cultural logic of contexts to build protective factors for Alaska Native suicide and alcohol misuse prevention. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 25(1), 44–54

Schaefer, K. R., Muller, C. J., Smith, J. J., Avey, J. P., & Shaw, J. L. (2020). Using the electronic health record to identify suicide risk factors in an Alaska Native Health System. Psychological Services. Advance online publication.

Sehgal, R., Saules, K., Young, A., Grey, M. J., Gillem, A. R., Nabors, N. A., Byrd, M. R., & Jefferson, S. (2011). Practicing what we know: Multicultural counseling competence among clinical psychology trainees and experienced multicultural psychologists. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(1), 1–10.

Shepherd, S. M., & Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2016). Forensic risk assessment and cultural diversity: Contemporary challenges and future directions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22(4), 427–438.

Taylor, D. M., & Kachanoff, F. J. (2015). Managing cultural diversity without a clearly defined cultural identity: The ultimate challenge. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 21(4), 546–559.

Taylor, M. A., Anderson, E. M., & Bruguier Zimmerman, M. J. (2014). Suicide prevention in rural, tribal communities: The intersection of challenge and possibility. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 38(2), 87–97.

Tormala, T. T., Patel, S. G., Soukup, E. E., & Clarke, A. V. (2018). Developing measurable cultural competence and cultural humility: An application of the cultural formulation. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 12(1), 54–61.

Trimble, J. E., & Clearing-Sky, M. (2009). An historical profile of American Indians and Alaska Natives in psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(4), 338–351. 

Tummala-Narra, P. (2015). Cultural competence as a core emphasis of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 32(2), 275–292.

Additional References:

- 2016 Tribal-State Opioid Summit. Minnesota Annual Summit of State and Tribal Leaders. July 2016. pg. 5-7.

- Abramson, M. Reflections on Knowing Oneself Ethically: Toward a Working Framework for Social Work Practice. Families in Society. 1996a. 77(4). pg. 195-202.

- American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (2015, January 1). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

- American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

- American Psychiatric Association. Mental Health Disparities American Indians and Alaska Natives. American Psychiatric Association Office of Minority and National Affairs. 2010. pg.1-6.

- American Psychological Association (APA). (2017, January 1). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from

- A presentation by Students for Community Cultural Awareness. Somali Immigration… Why Columbus, Ohio, Minnesota, Seattle, and Virginia?

- Barker, R. L. (1998). Milestones in the Development of Social Work and Social Welfare. Washington, DC: NASW Press. Rankin, Mary, JD employed by the Healthcare Training Institute to research and write the article Evolution of Social Work Ethics. Edited by Tracy Appleton, LCSW. The reference Barker, Robert L. Milestones in the Development of Social Work and Social Welfare. Washington, DC NASW Press, 1998.

- Bemecker, Samantha L. Helping Clients Help Themselves: Managing Ethical Concerns When Offering Guided Self-Help Interventions in Psychotherapy Practice. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice. April 2014, Vol. 45, Issue 2. pg. 111-119.

- Berkers, Pauwke. Ethnic Boundaries in American, Dutch, and German National Literary Policies, 1965-2006. International Journal of Cultural Policy. 2009-02. Vol. 37, Issue 5/6.

- Blair, Irene V. The Malleability of Automatic Stereotypes and Prejudice. Personality & Social Psychology Review. 2002. Vol. 6, Issue 3.

- Burner, D. Ethical Implications in Cross-Cultural Counseling and Training. Journal of Counseling & Development. May/June 1992. Vol. 70, Issue 5.

- Burton, Stephen. Furr, Susan. Conflict in Multicultural Classes: Approaches to Resolving Difficult Dialogues. Counselor Education & Supervision. June 2014. Vol. 53, Issue 2. pg. 97-110.

- Carter, R.T. & Qureshi, A. A Typology of Philosophical Assumptions in Multi-cultural Counseling and Training. In J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Casas L.A. Suzuki & C.m. Alexander (Eds.). Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp. 239-262). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 1995.

- Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien. Race/Ethnicity and Multicultural Competence Among School Counselors: Multicultural Training, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Color-Blind Racial Attitudes. Journal of Counseling & Development. April 2013. Vol. 91, Issue 2. pg. 140-151.

- Fukuyama, M.A. Taking a Universal Approach to Multicultural Counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision. 30, 6-17. 1990.

- Garcia, Jorge, Cartwright, Brenda, Winston, Stacey, & Barbara Borzuchowska. A Transcultural Integrative Model for Ethical Decision Making in Counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development. Summer 2003. Vol. 81, Issue 3.

- Gilbert C. Gee, PhD, Katrina M. Walsemann, PhD, MPH, and Elizabeth Brondolo, PhD. A Life Course Perspective on How Racism May Be Related to Health Inequities. The Science of Research on Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health. American Journal of Public Health. May 2012. Vol 102, No. 5. pg. 1-8.

- Greene, GJ, Jensen, C, & Jones D. Harper. A Constructivist Perspective on Clinical Social Work Practice with Ethnically Diverse Clients. Social Work. March 1996. Vol. 41, Issue 2.

- Hanna, Fred J.; Cardona, Betty. Multicultural Counseling Beyond the Relationship: Expanding the Repertoire With Techniques. Journal of Counseling & Development. July 2013. Vol. 91, Issue 3. pg. 349-357.

- Harris, Anita. Shifting the Boundaries of Cultural Spaces: Young People and Everyday Multiculturalism. Social Identities. 2009-03. Vol. 15, Issue 2.

- Helms, J.E. Generalizeing Racial Identity Interaction Theory to Groups. In J.E. Helms (Ed.), Black and White Racial Identity (pp. 187-204). Westport, CT: Greenwood. 1990.

- Henderson, Kathryn L. Mandated Reporting of Child Abuse: Considerations and Guidelines for Mental Health Counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. October 2013. Vol. 35, Issue 4. pg. 296-309.

- Ho, D.Y. Internalized Culture, Culturocentrism, and Transcendence. The Counseling Psychologist. 23, 4-24. 1995.

- Ibrahim, F.A. Effective Cross-Cultural Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Framework. The Counseling Psychologist. 13, 625-638. 1985.

- Ibrahim, F.A. Contribution of Cultural Worldview to Generic Counseling and Development. Journal of Counseling and Development. 70, 13-19. 1991.

- Indian Health Service. American Indian/Alaska Native Behavioral Health Briefing Book. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Indian Health Service Division of Behavioral Health Office of Clinical and Preventive Services. August 2011. pg.1-66.

- Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience. Counselor Education & Supervision. September 2013. Vol. 52, Issue 3. pg. 193-206.

- Kagnici, Dilek Yelda. Reflections of a Multicultural Counseling Course: A Qualitative Study with Counseling Students and Counselors. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice. 2014. Vol. 14, Issue 1. pg. 53-62.

- Kangas, Julie L., Calvert, James D. Ethical Issues in Mental Health Background Checks for Firearm Ownership. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice. February 2014. Vol. 45, Issue 1. pg. 76-83.

- Kelly, Caitlin. Stereotypes Can Be Ingrained Through Certain Behavior. Diversity Factor. 2009-01. Vol. 1,7 Issue 1.

- Loewenberg, F. M., & Dolgoff, R. & Harrington, D. Ethical Decisions for Social Work Practice. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock., 2000.

- Moe, Cathrine; Kvig, Erling I; Brinchmann, Beate; Brinchmann, Berit S. 'Working Behind the Scenes’: An Ethical View of Mental Health Nursing and First-Episode Psychosis. Nursing Ethics. August 2013. Vol. 20, Issue 5. pg. 517-527.

- National Association of Social Workers. (2017). NASW Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

- National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates. (2016, October 7). NBCC Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

- Nelson-Jones, Richard. Diverse Goals for Multicultural Counseling and Therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly. 2002. Vol. 15, Issue 2.

- Reamer, F. G. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy. Social Work. 2000. 45(4). pg. 355-366.

- Reamer, Frederic G. Social Work Ethics Casebook: Cases and Commentary. Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2009.

- Reamer, Frederic G. Social Work Malpractice and Liability: Strategies for Prevention. 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003)

- Reamer, Frederic G. Social Work Values and Ethics. 3rd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)

- Reamer, Frederic G. Ethical Standards in Social Work: A Review of the NASW Code of Ethics. 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2006)

- Reamer, Frederic G. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Tool. (Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2001)

- Reamer, Frederic G. Tangled Relationships: Managing Boundaries in the Human Services. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001)

- Reamer, Frederic G. Ethics Education in Social Work. (Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education, 2001)

- Rothstein, Mark A. Tarasoff Duties after Newtown. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Spring 2014, Vol. 42, Issue 1. pg. 104-109.

- Rowley, William, & Don MacDonald. Counseling and the Law: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development. Fall 2001. Vol. 79, Issue 4.

- Sciarra, Daniel T. Multiculturalism in Counseling. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. 1999.

- Steenbarger, Brett N. A Multicontextual Model of Counseling: Bridging Brevity and Diversity. Journal of Counseling & Development. September/October 1993. Vol. 72, Issue 1.

- U.S. Department of Energy. American Indian & Alaska Native Tribal Government Policy. U.S. Department of Energy. October 2000. pg.1-15.

- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Region. (2012). Visiting and Listening Meaningful Participation for Alaska Native Peoples in Conservation Projects. U.S. Department of the Interior.

- Walker, Robert & Michele Staton. Multiculturalism in Social Work Ethics. Journal of Social Work Education. 2000. Vol. 36, Issue 3.

- Williams, C.L., & Berry, J.W. Primary Prevention of Acculturative Stress Among Refugees. American Psychologist. 46. pg. 632-641. 1991.

- Yalom, I.D. The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books. 1995.

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